The Germans entered Lublin on September 18th 1939 when the Jewish population was close to 40000. Lublin had long had a history of being a center of learning Talmud and Kabala. Strong Hasidic traditions with many famous yeshivas, including Meir Shapiro’s which opened only 9 years before the invasion.
Lublin became a center for mass extermination during the holocaust, 30000 Jews were deported to Belzec or murdered in the nearby forests. The final deportations took place in November 1943 to nearby Majdanek. Lublin was liberated by the Russian army on July 24th 1944.